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The History of the Cigarette (summarised version)!

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DESIGN 8.8
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Summary

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Cigarettes do carry serious health effects with them, which are more prevalent than in other tobacco products. Nicotine, the primary psychoactive chemical in tobacco and therefore cigarettes, is addictive. About half of cigarette smokers die of tobacco-related disease and lose on average 14 years of life.Cigarette use by pregnant women has also been shown to cause birth defects, including mental and physical disabilities. Second hand smokefrom cigarettes has been shown to be harmful to bystanders,which has led to legislation that has banned their smoking in many workplaces and public areas. Cigarettes are the most frequent source of fires leading to loss of lives in private homes, which has prompted the European Unionand the United States of Americato ban cigarettes that are not fire standard compliant by 2011.

Fire safe cigarettes (abbreviated “FSC”: also known as Lower Ignition Propensity [LIP], Reduced Fire Risk [RFR], self-extinguishing, fire-safe or Reduced Ignition Propensity [RIP] cigarettes) are cigarettes that are designed to extinguish more quickly than standard cigarettes if ignored, with the intention of preventing accidental fires. In the United States, “FSC” above the barcode signifies that the cigarettes sold are Fire Standards Compliant (FSC).

Fire safe cigarettes are produced by adding two bands of the FSC chemical to the cigarette paper during manufacture in order to slow the burn rate at the bands. Because this process decreases the burn rate and does not prevent unattended cigarettes from igniting nearby materials or tinder, the term “fire-safe” has been called a misnomerwhich could lead smokers to believe that these cigarettes are less likely to cause fires than standard cigarettes.

The earliest forms of cigarettes were largely made of dickies from their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes have been attested in Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes. The Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and various psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico and Central and South America until recent times.

The South and Central American cigarette used various plant wrappers; when it was brought back to Spain, maize wrappers were introduced, and by the 17th century, fine paper. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya’s paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, and El juego de la pelota a pala (18th century)

 

By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France, where it received the name cigarette; and in 1845, the French state tobacco monopoly began manufacturing them.

In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became increasingly popular during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkishcomrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of old newspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf. This was helped by the development of tobaccos that are suitable for cigarette use, and by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry.

Cigarettes may have been initially used in a manner similar to pipes and cigars and not inhaled; for evidence, see the Lucky Strike ad campaign asking consumers “Do You Inhale?” from the 30?s. As cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic inhaling may have become more agreeable. On the other hand, Moltke (Helmuth von Moltke the Elder)noticed in the 1830s (cf. Unter dem Halbmond) that Ottomans (and he himself) inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia (tobacco) from their pipes (which are both initially sun-cured, acidic leaf varieties).

The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is largely a 20th century phenomenon – at the start of the century the per capita annual consumption in the USA was 54 cigarettes (with less than 0.5% of the population smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year), and consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked (defined as smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year).

By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, and by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691;implying that about 21% of the population smoked 100 cigarettes or more per year.

German doctors were the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer which led to the first Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany.

During World War I and World War II, cigarettes were rationed to soldiers. During the Vietnam War, cigarettes were included with C-rationmeals. In 1975 the U.S. government quit putting cigarettes in military rations. During the second half of the 20th century, the adverse health effects of tobacco smokingstarted to become widely known and text-only health warnings became commonplace on cigarette packets. Warnings became prevalent but unpopular, mainly due to the political influences held by tobacco growers. The United States has not yet implemented graphical cigarette warning labels, which are considered a more effective method to communicate to the public the dangers of cigarette smoking. Canada, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Australia, Brazil, New Zealand the United Kingdom, France, Romania, Singapore and Turkeyhowever, have both textual warnings and graphic visual images displaying, among other things, the damaging effects tobacco use has on the human body.

The cigarette has evolved much since its conception; for example, the thin bands that travel transverse to the “axis of smoking” (thus forming circles along the length of the cigarette) are alternate sections of thin and thick paper to facilitate effective burning when being drawn, and retard burning when at rest. Synthetic particulate filters remove some of the tar before it reaches the smoker.

Manufacturing

1. Filter made of 95% cellulose acetate.
2. Tipping paper to cover the filter.
3. Rolling paper to cover the tobacco.
4. Tobacco blend.
Modern commercially manufactured cigarettes are seemingly simple objects consisting mainly of a tobacco blend, paper, PVA (Polyvinyl acetate) glue to bond the outer layer of paper together, and often also a cellulose acetate-based filter. While the assembly of cigarettes is straightforward, much focus is given to the creation of each of the components, in particular the tobacco blend. A key ingredient that makes cigarettes more addictive is the inclusion of reconstituted tobacco, which has additives to make nicotine more volatile as the cigarette burns.

Paper

The paper for holding the tobacco blend may vary in porosity to allow ventilation of the burning ember or contain materials that control the burning rate of the cigarette and stability of the produced ash. The papers used in tipping the cigarette (forming the mouthpiece) and surrounding the filter stabilize the mouthpiece from saliva and moderate the burning of the cigarette as well as the delivery of smoke with the presence of one or two rows of small laser-drilled air holes.

According to Simon Chapman, a professor of public health at the University of Sydney, the burning agents in cigarette paper are responsible for fires and reducing them would be a simple and effective means of dramatically reducing the ignition propensity of cigarettes. Since the 1980s, prominent cigarette manufacturers such as Philip Morris (USA)and R.J. Reynoldsdeveloped fire-safe cigarettes but did not market them.

The burn rate of cigarette paper is regulated through the application of different forms of micro crystalline celluloseto the paper. Cigarette paper has been specially engineered by creating bands of different porosity to create “fire-safe” cigarettes. These cigarettes have a reduced idle burning speed which allows them to self-extinguish. This fire-safe paper is manufactured by mechanically altering the setting of the paper slurry.

New York was the first U.S. state to mandate that all cigarettes manufactured or sold within the state comply with a fire safe standard (FSS). Canada has passed a similar nation-wide mandate based on the same standard. All U.S. states are gradually passing fire-safe mandates.

European Union wishes to ban in 2011 cigarettes that are not fire-safe. According to a study made by European Union in 16 European countries, 11,000 fires were due to people carelessly handling cigarettes between 2005 and 2007. This caused 520 deaths and 1600 people injured.

Tobacco blend

Leones Africanos brand cigarettes from the mid 20th century, part of the permanent collection of the Museo del Obieto del Obieto ((Museum of the Purpose (object) of the Object, or MODO) is a museum in Mexico City.

The process of blending gives the end product a consistent taste from batches of tobacco grown in different areas of a country that may change in flavor profile from year to year due to different environmental conditions.

Modern cigarettes produced after the 1950s, although composed mainly of shredded tobacco leaf, use a significant quantity of tobacco processing by-products in the blend. Each cigarette’s tobacco blend is made mainly from the leaves of flue-cured brightleaf, burley tobacco, and oriental tobacco. These leaves are selected, processed, and aged prior to blending and filling. The processing of brightleaf and burley tobaccos for tobacco leaf “strips” produces several by-products such as leaf stems, tobacco dust, and tobacco leaf pieces (“small laminate”). To improve the economics of producing cigarettes, these by-products are processed separately into forms where they can then be possibly added back into the cigarette blend without an apparent or marked change in the cigarette’s quality. The most common tobacco by-products include:

Blended leaf (BL) sheet: a thin, dry sheet cast from a paste made with tobacco dust collected from tobacco stemming, finely milled burley-leaf stem, and pectin

Reconstituted leaf (RL) sheet: a paper-like material made from recycled tobacco fines, tobacco stems and “class tobacco”, which consists of tobacco particles less than 30 mesh (scale) in size (~0.599 mm) that are collected at any stage of tobacco processing. RL is made by extracting the soluble chemicals in the tobacco by-products, processing the leftover tobacco fibers from the extraction into a paper, and then reapplying the extracted materials in concentrated form onto the paper in a fashion similar to what is done in paper sizing. At this stage ammonium additives are applied to make reconstituted tobacco an effective nicotine delivery system.
Expanded (ES) or improved stems (IS): ES are rolled, flattened, and shredded leaf stems that are expanded by being soaked in water and rapidly heated. Improved stems follow the same process but are simply steamed after shredding. Both products are then dried. These two products look similar in appearance but are different in taste.
In recent years, the manufacturers’ pursuit of maximum profits has led to the practice of using not just the leaves, but also recycled tobacco offal and the plant stem. The stem is first crushed and cut to resemble the leaf before being merged or blended into the cut leaf. According to data from the World Health Organization, the amount of tobacco per 1000 cigarettes fell from 2.28 pounds in 1960 to 0.91 pounds in 1999, largely as a result of reconstituting tobacco, fluffing and additives.

A recipe-specified combination of brightleaf, burley-leaf and oriental-leaf tobacco will be mixed with various additives to improve its flavours.

Additives

Various additives are combined into the shredded tobacco product mixtures, with humectantssuch as propylene glycolor glycerol, as well as flavouring products and enhancers such as cocoa solids, licorice, tobacco extracts, and various sugars, which are known collectively as “casings”. The leaf tobacco will then be shredded, along with a specified amount of small laminate, expanded tobacco, BL, RL, ES and IS. A perfume-like flavour/fragrance, called the “topping” or “toppings”, which is most often formulated by flavour companies, will then be blended into the tobacco mixture to improve the consistency in flavour and taste of the cigarettes associated with a certain brand name (or brand). Additionally, they replace lost flavours due to the repeated wetting and drying used in processing the tobacco. Finally the tobacco mixture will be filled into cigarettes tubes and packaged.

A list of 599 cigarette additives, created by five major American cigarette companies, were approved by the Department of Health and Human Services in April 1994. None of these additives are listed as ingredients on the cigarette pack(s). Chemicals are added for organolepticpurposes and many boost the addictive properties of cigarettes, especially when burned.

One of the chemicals on the list, ammonia, helps convert bound nicotine molecules in tobacco smoke into free nicotine molecules. This process is known as freebasingwhich enhances the effect of the nicotine on the smoker

The first boxed and commercially sold cigarettes rolled in paper were called Duke of Durham. But there were hand made cigarettes available prior to that.

Tobacco was being sold as early as the 17th century, but for use in pipes and for snuff and not yet cigarettes.

The first rolled tobacco products were made in France around the time of the War of 1812 and were appreciated by the French military men. They were rolled in paper for use by the rich, but the poor/rural people rolled tobacco in corn husks (maize husks) to make their own.

The British became more involved in smoking tobacco and used rolled and chopped tobacco which was inside paper during the Victorian era. women also started smoking more around that time and that is when the cigarette got its name. The product emerged from the common cigar that mostly men smoked at that time, to be made into the dainty cigarette that women preferred. These were still rolled in paper by hand.

The cigarette-making machine that chopped and rolled tobacco in paper automatically and much more quickly than the hand rolling process, was invented in 1881. This made the commercial product cheaper to produce, and the reduced prices added to the popularity and increase of use.

Shortly after the rolling machine was created, the first packaged cigarettes to be on the commercial market were made by the machine, packed in a box and sold with baseball cards inside the box with them. They were called the brand name of Duke of Durham and were made by the American Tobacco Company. By 1902 Phillip Morris had come out with their own packaged cigarettes and the Marlboro brand was born.

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